/ ABSOAX REPORTS FOR mUJHSTOHB WkSXQSkL Bfcttt 1950 19351 1953 1955 1956 1953 9lT f /7, 57f Vof. //* YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK LiBMRY . 33G8 wm& m L AFB£ A Accidents . 5 Administration Animals 13 Anniversary - Golden Wedding (Riley). ... 5 Appropriations 5 Auto Treks, Lectures, Guided Trips 10 B Bathhouse Operations 4-22 Bears, Black 13 Bears, Grizzly 13 Beer and Wine, Sale of Boat Company, Yellowstone Park. 23 Buffalo Ranch Activities 12 Buildirg Maintenance and Construction ... 19 Bureau of Public Roads. * 23 Business and Professional Women's Clubs. . 1 Camps Company, Yellowstone Park 22 Civilian Conservation Corps. . 22 Civil Service 4 Civil Works Program. 21 Cooperating Bureaus 23 Bureau of Public Roads 23 Post Office. • 23 Weaker Bureau 23 D Deaths 26 E Electrical Department 18 Emergency Conservation Work 20 Emergency Construction 16 Engineering Department 15 F Fire Protection 12 Fishing Season 3 Fish Planting 14 Forestry 11 Fuel Company, Yellowstone Park 23 G General 1 Guided Trips, Lectures, Etc 10 H Hamilton, C. A . . • 22 Haynes Picture Shops, Inc 22 Hay Ranches 12 Highways, Improvement of 4 Hotel Company, Yellowstone Park 22 I Improvement of Highways 4 Insect Control 11 L Labor Situation 3 Lectures, Auto Treks, Guided Trips 10 M Mechanical Department 19 Miscellaneous 26 I Naturalist Department 8 Office of National Parks, Buildings and Reservations 3 Old Faithful Swimming Pool 4 Opening of Park 1 Park Operators • • 22 Personnel • 5 Personnel, Naturalist Department 8 Personnel, Protection Department 10 Pi Beta Phi Sorority ....• 1 Post Office 23 Predatory Animals • 13 Protection Department 10 Protection Department, Summer Activities • . • • 10 Protection Department, Winter Activities . . . . 10 Pryor and Trischman 22 Public Works Program 16 R Revenues 6 Road Conditions 4 S Sanitation Department • 17 Swimming Pool, Old Faithful 4 T Temporary Status of Ihployees 3 Trail Construction and Maintenance 12 Travel 6 U U. 3. Public Health Service (Sanitation). .... 17 V Visitors 26 Vital Statistics 26 W Waterfowl 14 Weather Bureau • 24 Wildlife in Park 13 Wine and Beer, Sale of 5 Yellowstone Park Boat Company .23 Yellowstone Park Fuel Company 23 Yellowstone Park Hotel Company 22 Yellowstone Park Lodge ani Camps Company ... 22 Yellowstone Park Transportation Company .... 23 ANNUAL REPORT FOR YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 1934 Roger W. Toll, Superintendent GENERAL i previous years the reports of the Superintendent have covered feist ruction season and included the period from October 1 to «>er 30. Office Order No. 274 from our Washington office provides le annual report for 1934 cover the period from October 1, 1933 q; 30, 1934, inclusive, the end of the fiscal year. This change lerefore preclude a comparison of travel for one season as oi; another and will include the period to June 30 only. It will Liminate the activities for the mast of the 1934 season hut such iition will "be carried in the annual report for 1935. ae sixty-second season of the park officially opened to motorists I 1, when the north, west and east gates "began admitting cars and fig the -,3.00 entrance fee. Because of the very mild^ winter with bnowfall it was possible to clear the park highways of snow earlier a previous years , some of which were open "before the first of p The south gate was cleared on April 21, the earliest in park cy. Travel via the south gate was not permitted until May 9. lists were admitted via the east gate on April 29 which was con- hbly earlier than previous years. he early opening of the roads naturally resulted in an increase bvel. The travel to the end of May showed an increase of 122^ (the percentage of increase to the close of the fiscal year was Designated "by Secretary of the Interior Ickes as "National ear" much excellent publicity was secured during the winter and tj; months and the travel to the park has proven conclusively that jople of the country have again become park conscious. No one lihave dared to predict such a large percentage of increase as iiown at the end of the fiscal year. If the travel continues as i- during the earlier part of the season the 1934 travel year should [iCh the record of 19 29 and exceed the travel of any other year, icrease in visitors was reflected in the rail travel as well as iitQiviohile travel, which has been very beneficial to the Trans- ition, Hotel and Lodge Companies, as well as the other park opera- nd the railroads serving the park. The railroads have made very Istive rates for summer travel to the West, which perhaps has aost responsible for the increase in travel to the park by rail. jil conventions, including the Pi Beta Phi Sorority, and the Busi- ttid Professional Women's clubs aided in boosting' the rail figures. I end of June 1415 rail visitors entered the park as against 521 5 same date last vaar. The total travel to June 30 was 60,090 3 ajainst 33,306 33. 2 The large increase in travel naturally had its effect on the "busi- ness of the operators and all operations were reporting a considerable increase over last year. The Hamilton Store at Old Faithful "began taking care of visitors on April 10, The house counts at the hotels and lodges were considerably in excess of last year, while the trans- portation line, the general stores, cafeterias, gasoline filling sta- tions, picture shops and fuel yards showed a marked increase in busi- ness up to the end of the fiscal year. The winter was the mildest that has "been recorded in the park, and the snowfall was very light* Not one day was lost "by CWA workers during the winter and spring months and it was possible to carry on this work without interruption* The month of May broke all May records for heat and dryness and the seven months from October to April all recorded temperatures above normal. Never before in the years of record, since 1887, was there an unbroken succession of these seven months with the temperature of each above normal* Follow- ing the dry weather in May, June set a new record for rainfall for that month, being the wettest June recorded since the establishment of the Weather Bureau in the park* This precipitation resulted in "beautifying the park and aided materially the depleted condition of the range* The wet weather delayed travel somewhat on some of the roads under construction in the park "but few complaints resulted* The fishing season opened on May 26 and immediately excellent catches were reported by visitors leaving the various gateways* The low water in the park streams and lakes improved fishing conditions throughout the park* A check of visitors leaving the park showed 36,427 fish caught to June 30 as against 18,394 to the same date last year* lake Hotel and Mammoth Hotel remained closed for the season while Lake Lodge was reopened to persons seeking housekeeping ac- commodations in the Tower Palls area were accommodated at Roosevelt ■kxl-e. Rail visitors were permitted to make the loop trip in 5g days as against 4& days in former years and the railroads sold park tours on the 3-g- days oasis, the rate via the hotels for r.oom without hath "being ^45.00 as against ^38.00 for the park trip via the lodges. The housekeeping cat ins and cafeterias particularly enjoyed a large in- crease in "business and it is evident that more people are seeking this t; pe of accommodati Several smail fires were reported up to the end of the fiscal year "but the park did -ot experience any fires of a serious nature. While the dry weather in May presented a fire hazard there was little danger of forest fires in June. The employment of men on park projects aided materially in re- ducing unemployment in the adjoining states, particularly in Park County Montana and Park County, Wyoming. With the CWA work under way from December to April it was possible t:> employ s >me 200 men from Livingston and Cody on these projects. The early spring permitted the contractors to get to work on their projects nich sooner then would have "been possible in ordinary \e ars an & many men found employment with these contractors. Likewise the ECW activities with the reestahlishment of four camps which operated last year and two additional camps, provided employment for a number of local people. The decrease in the hours of labor under the o erators code caused the increasing o their forces which provided additional employment. This increase in employment has had a very favorable effect on the business in the neighboring tov;ns and ' the large increase in park travel has also been reflected in tourists business in the adjoining states, especially in Qit^es .and towns on the main highways leadin to and from the park. The excellent weather of September, October and November per:- it ted persons to isit the park until a late date and accommodations were available at the Hamilton store at Lake until Oct ber 10 while the Old Faithful store took care of late visit. rs until November 5. There were very few storms to hinder travel and all of the road were open during November. On October 1, 1933 all permanent employees were placed on a tem- porary status and all annual ,and sick leave was withdraw. On Nobember 1, 1933 all leave privileges were restored and the permanent personnel reappointed. On February 1, 1934 the legislative deduction of 15% on July 1, 1954. On March 2, 1934 President Roosevelt signed „he Interior Department -appropriation Bill which provided, among other things, for the resoration of the name "National -ark Service" to repiace the name "Office of National Parks, Buildings, and .Reservations," which was adopted last August. 4 The placing of all employees excepting common laborers, te.p ary rangers, and ranger naturalists tinder Civil Service is workig very satisfactorily except in some cases there has "been consider^ delay in getting the men to report at the time the work opens, h furloughing of employees at the end of the working season permit employing them the next season without regard to their standing a the register. This is working very satisfactorily once the emplj •are selected for the various positions. All truck drivers were a ployed from the registers for the first time this year, register "being available last year for most of the other skilled position. Many compliments were received regarding the marked improva in the park highways. While travel was delayed some "because of b construction work under way, within two or three years the grand) highway in the Yellowstone as well as the entrance roads leading! it will "be more modern standards and comparable to any of the hi found in the surrounding states. The improvement of the highway Golci Gate received much favorable comment from park visitors, T now a high gear road from Mammoth to Old Faithful with travel su from Mammoth to Obsidian Cliff -and a permanent oil surface from Obsidian L liff to Pirehold Cascades. The section from Firehole Cascades to Old Faithful has been let for grading. On the east of the Park construction work is under way on the section from C to Bridge Bay and from Arnica Creek to the south entrance. The from Canyon to Mammoth, via Dunraven Pass and Tower Falls has be practically all graded or graveled and the remaining portion is : under construction. The stretch from lake Butte to lake Junctio; the east entrance road is under construction, A contract has be< let and work is under way on a section of the T ^wer Falls-Cooke : from Soda Butte to Cooke. Mr. C, A, Hamilton, who took over the bathhouse operations H, P. Brothers at Old Faithful and Fishing ride on June 20, 1931 began remodeling his Old Faithful swimming pool last fall and cor pieted the work during the spring so that it was operating when " park officially opened. This swimming pool has proven quite opul durin-- the warm summer days. It is closed and has a glass top. Despite the fact that the season was advanced this year, ee visitors were rewarded by seeing much park game. Moose were in « dence almost daily in Willow Park while the antelope were seen ai Gardiner and between Gardiner and Mammoth, A band of mountain si} frequented the Mt, Washburn region. The bears, although somewhat late in making their appearence, were seen in the various park ar The construction of a new road into the bear feeding grounds at Canyon delayed them from making their appearance nightly for the from the dining rooms of the hotels and lodges. As soon as the r per itted travel the show went on and each night there was a fine play of girzzl: bears. Following the opening of the hotel and lo at Old Faithful the bear show at that point was put on ni htly at bear feeding grounds with a large attendance for most of the pero mances. Measures to rid the park of bad bears had had its effect lessening the "bear damages and injuries and comparatively few com- plaints reached the superintendent's office. No serious personal injuries caused "by "bears were reported. Many visitors saw deer while one large "bull elk at Norris Junction was the subject for number ous still and motion pictures, i The park policy with regard to the sale of "beer, wines and liquors remained the same as in force in 1933, namely that the al- coholic content should not exceed 3,2$. A serious accident, resulting in the death of Carl Johnson of Livingston, Montana occurred on the Marmot h Tower Fails road about 2g- miles from Tower Palls on Octoher 31, 1933, Six men were riding in a truck "belonging to Fred Lindsay, sub-contractor for one of the contractors on the Red Lodge-Cooke road, when the driver lost control and the car went over a "bank, turned over twice and half "buried it- self in the hillside, Mr, Johnson was killed while the other occu- pants of the car were considerably .stunned and "bruised, Mr. and Mrs # William Riley hold the distinction of celebrating the first Gold Wedding .anniversary in Yellowstone Park as far as park records disclose. The Rileys had been married 50 years on March 20, 1934, Mr, Riley has been in the employ of the Park Service sincd 1919 and retires from active service July 31, 1934. administration Personnel: The permanent personnel consists of Roger W. Toll, Superintendent; Guy D, Edwards, Assistant Superintendent; Joseoh Joffe, Assistant to the Superintendent; Benjamin A # Hundley, Chief Clerk; Francis W, Watson, Disbursing Clerk; Parke W, Soule, Senior Clerk and Bookkeeper; Verna M» Roe, Clerk-Stenographer; Constance P. v/hitney, Clerk-Stenographer; Virginia J, Goettlich, Timekeeper; Keith Neilson, Voucher Clerk; Edwin C. Stevens, Clerk in Chief Ranger* s office. At the close of the fiscal year the position made vacant by the resigna- tion of Mary L, ^iller, Clerk-Stenographer, had been recommended for filling by the appointment of William H, Katus, This forcd is aug- mented during the summer season with two clerk-stenographers, one statistical clerk, one publicity clerk and one card clerk. Also, one stenographer, Jerry P. Tonini, assigned to the superintendent during the winter at his headquarters office in Denver on work in connection with inspection of proposed parks and monuments, is transferred to the park luring the summer season. The maximum number of employees on the payroll at one time was 469, consisting of 74 permanent and 395 temporary employees, A ^propriations; Appropriations for the fiscall year TJ34 are as follows: ♦44433,3 Yellowstone National Park, 1934 $326,255.0( 44406.3 Forest. Protection & fire Prevention, 1934 10, 550. OC 44405.3 Emergency Reconstruction & Fighting Forest Fires, 1934 7,797. 3* 4x409 Extension, Winter Feed Facilities, Game Animals, Yellowstone National Park 3, 250. 5( 4x436 Roads and Trails, National Parks 123,730.60$ 43436.1 Roads and Trails, National Parks, Emer- gency Construction, 1933 194,723.70 4-03-5640.8 National Industrial Recovery, Interior, National Parks, Roads & Trails, 1933- 1935 40-35640.14 National Industrial Reoovery, In- terior, National Parks, Buildings & Reservations, 1933-35 262,803.54 f^J.,000 reserved for Washinrton ,offic,e expenditures and §138/ for unallotted reserve. **Re verse figure shown since several ma^or obligations and ai; ments were transferred to other road appropriations. Revenues for 1954 Fiscal Year: Revenues ag gregating $164, 6?/, were received from the following sources during the fiscal year and deposited in the Treasury of the United States as Miscellaneous Rec< Automobile and motorcycle permit fees §135,205.00 Franchise and permit fees 25,072.54 Electric current 2,257.40 Water 545.88 Miscellaneous , 1,541.23 * TRAVEL Due to the unusually mild and early spring the park roads wer< of snow much earlier than usual, and the .entrance stations were opei the sale of permits started on May 1. Consequently the increase in season travel has brought the travel figures up %o 60,070 visitors 1 October 1, 1933 and June, 30, 1934, inclusive, as compared with 33, 3( visitors for the same season of a year ago, an increase of 26,764. comparative study of automobile travel shows that 18,771 motor vehic entered the park between October 1, 1933 and June 30, 1934, as compt with 10, 345 for the same period last year, an increase of 8,426. r . has been a total of 1,415 visitors by rail between October 1, 1933 i June 30, 1934, as compared with a total of 521 for the same period '. year, an increase of 994. A comparison of rail travel figures for 1 year and last year is as follows: Gateway * 1933-34 1932- ■33 Increase North West East South # ## 590 581 237 7 190 250 78 3 400 331 159 4 Northeast TOTAL 1415 521 894 *0ct. 1 to June 30, inclusive. #West entrance rail travel for 1933-34 consists of Union Pacific System 518; CMStP&P 58; and. Northern Pacific 5. ## Rail travel through the south entrance consists of 3 persons entering via Union Pacific System, through Victor, Idaho, and 4 via Chicago & Northwestern through lander, Wyoming. The number of cars and visitors reported in daily counts at des- ignated developed campgrounds for the period, October 1, 1933 to June 30, 1934, inclusive: Designated Campground Cars ♦Campers West Yellowstone Fishing Bridge Old Faithful Mammoth lake Canyon West Thumb Norris Junction Madison Junction Tower Falls TOTAL 66 222 1884 6330 642 2191 313 1052 153 514 270 891 219 736 84 282 141 474 19 64 3801 12756 Total season travel "by entrance gateways "between October 1, and June 30, 1934 and 1933 Rail Aut omob i le Mot ore yc le Misc. Pre-season Gateway visitors cars .Pass • Vehic les Pass, , foot cars Visitors TOTAL pack 1933-34 North 590 2076 3950 5 6 63 3870 11709 16318 West 581 2309 7007 6 10 23 3588 11011 18632 East 237 794 7203 9 17 3 3575 11547 19007 South 7 63 2474 1 1 10 1080 3150 5642 Northeast 189 3 92 299 491 TOTALS 1415 6545 20823 21 34 102 12205 37716 60090 8 1932-33 North 190 878 2675 * 6 74 2752 8706 11651 West 250 1404 4575 3 4 22 1859 5912 10763 East 78 1603 4881 2 2 34 1352 4440 9405 South 3 369 1126 2 4 3 117 351 1487 TOTALS 521 4254 13227 11 16 133 6080 19409 33306 NATURALIST DEPARTMENT There were several changes in the staff of this departmentdurig this period. First, Wilfred Mead, Janitor, was transferred to the Dp ment of Plumbing and Sanitation on*0ctoher 23 and assi Tied full time janitor work, Mrs, Herma A, Baggley, Junior Park Naturalist, resign! take effect at the end of the calendar year. She remained on duty it December 16, William E, Kearns, new Junio Park Naturalist, reportedb work on May 23, -The permanent staff on June 30,1934 consisted of: Park Naturalist Assistand Park Naturalist Junior Park Naturalist C, Max Bauer George C, u rowe William E. Kearns The summer staff for June, 1934 included 18 ranger-naturalists clerk-stenographer and 3 laborers or caretakers for the museums. Th; of the ranger-naturalists were designated senior ranger-naturalists ) supervise the activities at Fishing Bridge, Old Faithful and Mammoth Hot Springs Museums, All of the museums were closed "before the firs' October, 1933. The opening dates for the museums are given "below: Mammoth Museum Norris Museum Madison Museum Old Faithful Museum Fishing Bridge Museum June 4 June 16 June 20 June 16 June 16 The daily hours for each museum are as follows: Mammoth ! useum Fishing Bridge Museum Norris Museum Madison Museum Old Faithful Museum 8 AM to 8 Fi t> Aj.'i tO 8 rl.i 8 AM to 5 PM 8 AM to 5 PM 8 AIT to 9:30 PM An outside amphitheater for the Mammoth campground is "being con structed on the hillside above the camp in / area, 1 o t. i \. : . "being done "by the CCC. In June a small amphitheater with seating cap city for 75 persons, and a fireplace where constructed near the Madis Museum at a point from which National Park Mount ian is visible. Further improvements have museum. Through cooperation of was excavated during the winter This room is for the storage of and animals and the herbarium, where "biological and geological "been carried on at the headquarters the CWA the south end of the "basement and a concrete floor placed in it, study collections of skins of birds It is also to he used for a lahcrator; work may "be carried on "by research workers in Yellowstone. The preparation of a relief schedule has "been arranged so that ranger-naturalists will have regular relief during the summer season amouting to one :ay a week. The placement of a ranger -naturalist at Lest Thumh ranger station has greatly improved the work at that point in that there is a daily nature walk to Duck lake and return, and a well organized camp fire program with naturalist lectures every evening serving from 100 to 150 campers. On the formation walk over the thermal area a more detailed description of the activities there is presented "by an ex- perienced geologist. Special naturalist service was furnished to the various con- ventions in session in the park. The pre-season lecture program of the permanent naturalists in the CCC camps offered on educational feature to these men. These lectures were continued with the aid of rangers and ranger-naturalists speaking one night a week in each of the six camps, on educational subjects pertaining to Yellowstone National Park. The interpretation of natural history of the park "by motian pic- tures was inaugurated. ^embers of the naturalist staff cooperated both "by consultation and field trips with the Bureau of Public Roads and the park engineers relative to road location in the park. The research work of Dr. Arthur Howard relative to the geology ' A 'ower Falls region was continued. The cooperation of the Princeton School of Field Geology was secured in supplying research workers to study problems in Yellowstone National Park. ^onthly observations of the geysers and hot springs have "been : ade throughout the year and information carded. 10 Activities from October 1 to June 30, inclusive :Field Trips: Lectures: Museum: Auto Caravans :Sp.Pa:r Station \ No.: Att. ! t No.: Att.: Att. : No.: Cars : Att. : No.: i ^anyon Fishing Bridge; Madison Mafifeoth Mt. Washburn i Nor r is "'est Thumb ! 50:6388 | ! 13: 124 i : 4: 57 : i 19: 418 » • < i 37: 889 : 20: 938 ! 14 :2920 : : 53 :4152 : 6418 : ! 40 :1649 : 2885 : 133 : 14307: 9983 : : : 1720 : I 34 : 12895: 14608 : : 10 : 472S 11: 15- 14 « 1 : 32j : 172! 68l! > 108 j 575 - 2321 ! 2: [ 2: 1: L : 8*: | I 1: . TOTAL ! 171: 130374 : 284: 38115:38228 : 40: 885 • 3004 : 14: i TOTAL CONTACTS Oct. 1 to June, 1933 w 1 to " 1934 49, (P 90, (: PROTECTION DEPARTMENT General: During the extemely mild winter, conditions were un- usually favorable for conducting several special wild like study pro, in addition to the regular protection department activities of prote and observation of fauna and other natural features. Considerable t devoted to planning ofwork projects and supervision of ECW, CWA, and activities. Summer activities have been handicapped by the reductio; temporary ranger force in the face of the unexpected increase in tra^ Personnel: The protection department personnel consists of Chi Ranger George F. Baggley; "four assistants chief ranger, Harry Trischrr George rangers buffalo keeper; one buffalo herder and one night watchman, assigned t Mammoth. Assistant Chief Ranger Johnston has been assigned to ECW * in the Washington office since November,- 1933, Assistant Chief Range IaNoue was assigned to supervision of CWA work at Scotts Bluff Nation Monument during the winter .onths. Miller, Francis D. Lanoue, and Fred T. Johnston; 23 permane ; 27 temporary rangers; one- cheif buffalo keeper, one assistar "'INTER ACTIVITIES: The protection department winter activities consisted of the regular patrols for game study and observation, spec game study projects, maintenance of telephone lines, removing snow fr the r^ofs of government buildings, waterfoul observation, reading wat gauges, measuring snow depths, making weather observations, game feed and predatory animal control. Two permanent rangers were assigne to supervision and plaining of CWA activities in the park during the win months. Some time was spent on the preparation and completion of pla for ECW projects and forestry projects for the summer. Summer Activities: Summer activities consisted of law enforcem contacting ann entertaining special visitors, information service to ' 11 public, checking traffic at entrance stations, fire prevention and contr 1, construction and maintenance of trails, -preparing and main- taining snowshoe cabins, and supervision of ECW projects. The reduced number of temporary rangers, with the heavy increase in travel and early fire season, haa retarded summer activities considerably. CCC enrollees, detailed under ECW supervision, have been employed from trail maintenance, fire patrol, forest cleanup and other such general pro- tection duties as they may he sued for. Forestry : Insect Control; During the spring of 1934, two insect con- trol projects were in progress in the park. Roadside Ips control work was started in April and completed in the middle of May, Mountain pine bettle insect control in the Mt. Washburn section of the park was carried on during May and June and upon completion practically all of the infested area in and adjeacent to this scenic area had been treated. The roadside Ips control project was carried on between Obsidian Cliff and Madison Junction and all infested trees within 150 feet of each side of the road were treated. Public Works funds were used and $1278 was expended in treating 10,244 trees. The mountain paine bettle control project on Mt. Washburn covered 5,127 acres and 2,684infested trees were treated by felling and burn- ing methods. Public ' orks and regular insect appropriations were used, approximately .7,000 being expended from the two sources, CCC labor was also used on this project. Three camps were established in order to carry on the work and 'two of these camps were off the highways and rati ned "by pack string. It is thought that the infestation in the area covered has been reduced at least to a normal stage. Included in the area treated this season were 728 acres of infested forest that only one or two new attacks were present where in 1933 there were 20 t 30 attacks. On the east side of Mt. ^'ashburn, 138 acres of heavily infested forest was not treated due to lack of funds and lateness of the season. A heavily infested area to the West of the V'ashburn unit was discovered during the control operations and could not be in- cluded in the program. Forestry and fire protection work had gone forward under the ECW program. Such work as forest cleanup, campground planting and recon- struction, roadside clean p, motorway, trail, boat docks, telephone line and bridge construe tin have been started. The field data collected during the su mer of 1933 by the type mapping crews was compiled and tracings or the field maps were made during the winter. This completes two thirds of the type map of Yel- lowst jne Park. Since no funds were available for type-mapping work in the spring of 1934 no wort has been started. 12 Fire Protecti n : The extemely li^ht winter together with the driest May on record created a serious fire hazard two months ahead if the usual time. Nine fires occurred prior to June 30, six having ton caused "by lightning and the rest were man-caused. All of these fire were small, "being either in Classes A. or B. Early in the season the six CCC camps were organized for fires emergencies. Lectures and instructions wer"e given and each camp was organized into a flying s.quadron of 50 men and two 40 men follow-up crews, a section of the flying squadron was given fire fighting in- struction each week "by the camp fire chief. Twenty-nine CCC men we: selected from the different camps and were stationed at the various ranger stations and snowshoe cahins as smoke chasers.. TRAIL C lioT'.VCTIQM aN.3 : kIETZHa >^S; Trail crews of one and tv men were employed during the early season to clear down timber fr m the Howard Baton and lead-in trails. Such crews were used only whei the distance from camp prohibited the use of CCC men. For the most part, trail repairs and maintenance have "been handled "by CCC labor. Thirty miles of trail improvement and seven miles of new trail con- struction was handled as Public Works and CWE projects. Buffalo Ranch xictivities ; a "buffalo management plan for the "i] lows tone herd was worked up during the winter. Other activities of the Buffalo Ranch consisted of feeding, caring for the "buffalo herd, maintenance of "buildings, corrals and machinery, and irrigation and management of hay landd. During Januar, and February 165 head of su- plus "buffalo were slaughtered and the meat distributed to various Indian agencies in lion tana and "'yoming. Twelve were shipped alive. One hundred and twenty-one tons of hay were fed to the "buffalo this year as compared with 314 tons of hay and 20 tons of cottonseed cake for last year. The light, open winter enabled the major portion of the head t find suff ic ient food for maintenance without concentrating on the f ing ground at the ranch. Abuut 300 head of buffalo successfully win tered in Pelican Creek Valley. Hay Ranches t The folio win- table shows the amount of hay fed I the various hay ranches as compared with last year: 3 lou gh. Creek Gardiner Game Rand 1932*313 1933-34 1932-33 1933-34 1932-33 1933- 334 T 48 T 6 T 36 T The majority of game animals were uble to find sufficient natui subsistence without relying upon food on the feeding bounds. Conse- quently there was a considerable reduction in the amount of hay fed this year. 13 Predatory Animals ; One hundred and eighty coyotes were killed this year as compared with 140 killed last year. Wildli fe in the Park: All game animals survived the winter in excellent condition. The few animals that dies, succumbed to old age rather than to exposure or lack of food. High precipitation during the month of June materially improved the range conditions on voth the summer and winter ranges. The outlook for winter feed, for the comin- winter is better than it has "been for the past two or three years. However, in spite of the record high precipitation for June the average precipitation is still "below normal and this, coupled with the heavy overgrazing on the winter range, which has caused serious depletion, will require stringent measures to "bring about proper re- habilitation. B ears, Black: Black "bears were late in coming into the feeding grounds and utility areas having emerged from their hibernation about a month earilier then usual and scattering out farther into the forest. Unly a few of these animals were seen "by park visitors up until June 30, Only four "bear damages were reported for the period October 1, 1933 to June 30, 1934, as compared with 22 damages and injuires for the same period last year. Bears, Grizzly: Grizzly "bears, like the "black "bears, were also slow in coming to the feeding grounds. Due to the road repair:- and cons- truction, the Canyon feeding ground has not "been opened "but is expect- ed to "be in use within 10 to 15 days. The only other feeding ground "being used this year is the Old Faithful "lunch Counter" where one or two girzzly bears have been seen nightly. Other Animals: Beaver, snowshoe rabbits and marmots have been seen over the entire park and have been a source of entertainment and interest to park visitors. Other small animals, including maren, otter, mink, etc., are seldom, seen by park visitors, "but those seen by rangers on patrol indicate a slight yearly increase. 14 One game count was made this year, i'he followin the counts and estimates of game animals: table shows : Actual Count s Estimated 1933: 1934 :1933; 1934 Increase : Condition 19 5 o: 1934: 19^3 1934 _ Antelope : 599: 321 : 700: Buffalo : *985: #950 :100$t Deer : 396: : 850: Elk • : : 10647 : : Northern Herd: 11521: :2500: Gallatin Herd: 1822: 1053 :2450: Interior Park: 448:No couat600: Lloose : 71} n : 700: Sheep : 82: 125 : 150: Bears, Grizzly : 125: : 260: " Black : 323: : 525: aoo 950 850 13000 2000 600 700 150 Yes : % : Good slaughtered Excel No : No : Poor ? No : ? i ? :Yes : Yes Yes. Pair ? . : Fair No : Fair Yes : Good Yes: Fair ? : Excel ? : Excel Excel Excel Fair Good Good G od God Good T'^xcel Excel * Does not include # Does not inc lude nor thi: S shipped and 202 s 12 shipped and 165 .year's calf crop. laughte:» s laught«f m aterf owl: Observations and counts of trumpeter swan show an. crease over last year. large numbers of ducks and gees were observe! during the fall of the year on all the lakes and streams. Fore thei the usual number of waterfqwl were observed in the pari- during the winter. Many of the streams and small lakes which ordinarily freeze over during the winter .were open this year and orovided an excellent winter habitat for these birds. Fish Planting: The collection of black-spotted trout eggs at Yellowstone Park hat.hery, operated by. the US bureau of Fisheries ui the direction of supervisor Fred J, Foster, has. amounted to 38, 190, C which number, exceeds by some six million e gs the collection any ot* season of operation in Yellowst ,ne Park. This is the sixth c nsecu- tive year that egg collections have increased over the previous seat: indicating that fishing cmditiont. over the park and especially in Yellowstone lake are improving arjiually. In addition to the black- spotted trout eggs 4,343,320 grayling eggs were also taken which nuir. ber amounts to more than a 100% increase over lastyears take. Both grayl ng and black-spotted tr out eggs hatched excellently and equal! as well as in previous seasons. It has been the practice to divide the eggs taken in Yellowsto National Park between the Bureau of Fisheries and the National Park Service, the National Park Service receiving one half of all eggs collected. Of the 17,397,500 black-spotted eggs assigned to the Par Service 800,^00 were sent to Idaho hatcheries to be hatched on share f r the Bechler River, 1,000,000 to Teton Park, 1,700,00 to Glacier Park, 1,250,000 to Bozeman hatcher for w e st side waters, 3^0,000 to T't. Rainier Park, and 12,379,190 held in Yellowstone for distributio: here. Of the Bureau of Fisheries* share, 17,365,810 eggs were shipp out of the park. Of the 4,343,320 grayling eggs eyed, 3,048,320 wer 15 planted in Yellowstone, 500,000 chipped to Glacier Par: , and .45,000 shipped out of the park "by the Bureau of Fisheries. In addition to the plants made in Yellowstone from the eggs hatch- ed here there were received and planted 350,000 rainbow fry from the Bit Timer, Montana hatchery; 229,150 rainbow fry from the Anaconda hatcher, 37,500 #3 rainbow from the Boxeman, Lontana hatcher; 8,710 eastern or ok trout #3 from the Boxeman and 208,000 lock leven from the Bozeman hatchery. The rearing pools at L.ammoth were not operated this year due : ainly to the unsuit ability of the water supply, which annually has cauxsed considerable loss and difficulty with a "bacterial disease known as fin rot, one of the most difficutl to control of all fish diseases. Dr.. John W. Scott, P ofessor of 2 ology, Wyoming University, has continued his study f fish -arasites in Yellowstone Park. Fishermen are having good luck this year as shov.n by the fact that the number of fish reported as caught by park visitors to date amounts to 36,427 as compared with 18,394 last year. ENGDPr^IFG DEPART 1 - 1 Engineer i ng activities are carried on under the direction of Park Engineer C. A. Lord and include the direction and supervision of road and trail maintenance, surveys, plans and construction engineering on roads and trails built as force account projects, engineering super- vision of physical improvements and any general engineering assistance requested by other deoartments. Road maintenance activities cover 361 miles of highway, 310 miles of which are within the park boundaries, 24 miles in the east approach road through the Shoshone National Forest and 27 miles. of the south approach road between I.'oran and the south boundary, Work under this item is carried on from 15 carnps established and maintained at central p ints during the travel season. All section crews are equipped with motorized equipment suitable to the cla^s of maintenance to be done. Since our last report, £5 miles of the main highway system have been reconstructed to high type standards so far as grading is concern- ed and ZZ miles additional surfaced with crushed rock. Comparatively little force account construction was carried on with allotments from regular park appropriations, nearly all such work be- ing financed from the Civil Works and Public Works emergency funds and reported elsewhere under the item of Emergency construction. Post-construction ma ntenance was carried on over the Obsidian Cliff -Fir ehole Cascades and eas entrance road sections, consisting mainly of the installation of dra nage tile to carry off sub-surface drainage and provide an outlet for seepage waters. Approximately 1500 16 feet of tile was installed on the first mentioned section and 2700 ! < feet on the east entrance road. This work was financed from the "balance of the allot: ent set up the previous season. Surfacing and oiling of the subsidiary road leading to Artist; Point was completed, surfacing work consisting of the addition of fines tc the crushed rock placed during the previous season, Oilin, was the standard type of road mix job using about 12,' 00 gallons of asphaltic road oil to the mile and resulting in a three-inch oil ma- Two major grading projects, the T wer Junction- lava Creek seel, and the Terraces-Obsidian Cliff section, were accepted from the con tractor and placed under post -cons tract ion maintenance with Park Sui vice forces and enuipment. This work involved spot surfacing with select material, roadside cleanup, palliative oiling and the instai; tion of approximately 500 lineal feet of drainage tile.- Emergency Construction: Public Works Program ; Allotments covering the Public Vois program were made available on August 19 too late to get the full pr- gram under way during the 1953 season. However, 12 projects were at and several of them completed "before the close of the fiscal year. Considerable improve ent was made on the 10 mile section of th road "between lake and Vest Thumb, known as the lake ^hore road. One half mile of drainage tile was installed, steep shoulder slopes flat tened to prevent erosion and sever sand pockets in the roadbed stabilized, by the addition of clay binder. That section of the subsidiary road leading to Inspiration Poi;; west of Grand View was surfaced and given a palliative oil treatment The section was regraded and curves built up to standard super- elevation. Following fine grading a six-inch course of loose crushe< rock was spread and compacted and sufficient road oil applied to forr a dust palliative and prevent loss of fines and erosion from storms. The West Gallatin section was given a seal coat treatment for 1 protection of the oil mat surface laid down during the previous seasc One eight gallon of naptha cutback asphalt per square yard was applie with pressur distributor, completely sealing the cracks and stria ic against moisture seepage. At Artist Point the parking area graded under the construction contract and surfaced as a minor force account project was improved by the construction of a masonry curb and the amplication of a three- quarter armor coat, or wearing surface, using crushed rock and emul- sified asphalt binder. Construction of permanent hard surfaced footpaths serving the Old Faithful thermal area was continued, the work consisting of the buildinr- of a section of trail near Grand Geyser and the construction of two bridges over the Firehole River, one near Inkwell Springs and 17 the second in the Biscuit Basin area. mVi e trail leading to the headwaters of the Iamar River was in- proved "by relocation and. regrading and the erection of several "bridges. fi ow construction extended this trail about eight miles ahove its ori- ginal terminus. A new standard four horse "barn was constructed at the adminis- trative area at Soda Butte. The new building is of combination log and frame construction conforming to the type of architecture of the ranger station erected two year^ ago. Two standard snowshoe cabins were erected in the lamar district and near the north "boundary. This project was contracted "but erected under the Park Service supervision. Three comfort stations were erected at the' Fishing Bridge area; two heing let to contract for the erection of the "building proper with the installation of oewer and water facilities performed as force account "by the Park Service. The third "building was erected entirely "by the Park Service. A water system was installed at West Yellowstone, principally for service to the newly completed ranger station and administrative "building, "but also with the idea of eventual service to the public auto camp in that area. The structure housing the pumping unit and pressure tank was let to contract "but all other work was carried on as force account. The Mammoth water system was improved and increased "by the addi- tion of water from the Indian Creek watershed. This improvement in- volved the construction of a log and timber diversion dam and an earth canal, approximately a mile in length, to carry the additional water to the nresent headworks on Panther Creek and the Gardiner River. An extensive program of reconditioning old "buildinrs for the elimination of fire hazards was carried out at the headquarters area at Mammoth, iill chimeys and flues were either repaired or rebuilt as their condition appeared to warrant and a many construction condi- tions not conforming to the underwriters * code were corrected. SANITATION DEPARTMENT This work is carried on under the supervision of H. B. Hommon the US Public Health Serivice and under the direct charge of William Wiggins , Master Plumber. Mr. Homman made a thorough inspection of our entire operations during the latter part of July and outlined necessary corrective measures. Mr. Wiggins makes regular sanitary inspecti ns as outlined "by Mr. Homman. 18 The following work was accomplished: West Entrance PWA projeci constructing one complete sewer system and one water system with dec well gasoline operated pump and two 2,000 gallon underground storage tanks. Constructing two leaching cesspools for Canyon and Old Faith mess houses: Operating and maintaining two refrigerating plants: J. stalled two complete plumbing systems in the west entrance ranger station. CWA work at Mammoth consisted of installing 2000 feet of 10-ir fire main and "building 1200 feet of filter trench for the sewer sysli PWA projects at Mammoth consisted of installing complete oil- "burning unit in the administration "building: Installing 48 radiatoi in the "barracks "building, to take the place of wood stoves: Moving residence "building to make room for 'th construction of the new apai meat house. The first work was done lender Account ^349 - Eliminated of Fire Hazards. One comfort station at the Fishing Bridge Auto Camp was comple and installation was started of 8,000 feet of six-inch water main. One vacuum type chlorine machine was purchased and installed f the lake ewer system. In addition 24 water systems, 32 sewer systems and 5 incinerat were operated and maintained. The sixth incinerator, located at Thum"b was not operated, due to lack of funds. Many campgrounds and parking areas in the park were also operated and maintained "by this department. The heating systems at Mammoth, including 14 steam "boil were also operated and maintained "by this department. The tinsmith in this department is also an imprtant item as there are a great nun' of sheet metal roofs, ice "boxes and stoves to maintain. EEC TH I CA L DUP.MIT? 1 ! 1 The following table shows total production f power plant and dis- trih tion of current for the period October 1, 1933 to June 30, 1934 compared with similar data for the fiscal year 1933: F.Y. 1933 October 1, 1933 June 30, 1934 Sold to Park Operators 44,565 15,398 Street lighting .,1,280 -2,080 Used by Govt, bldgs. for light and power 690,074 565,935 Total production 765,*919 603,413 Several old buildings at Mac'moth were rewired last winter on Project FP 349 - Elimination of Fire Hazards. Three miles of cedar pole telephone line was built from the ma: 19 highwa, to Biacktail Deer Greek cabin on the Yellowstone River to serve the snowshoe cabin during the winter. Approximately 10 miles of one-were grounded telephone line was bu.lt from the main highway at the east entrance to Pelican snowshoe cabin. This line was built by ECW labor using native poles. We now have 394 miles of metallic circuit, 16 J. miles of grounded circuit and there are 231 telephones connected. One 50-watt low wave broadcasting and receiving station was installed at Mammoth and one 10-watt low wave broadcast, ng and re- ceiving station installed at lake besides six semi-portable sets to be used at various other noints in the oark and at fires. BUILDING T'AINTENANCS AND CONSTRUCTION All carpenter work is under the general supervision of Master Carpenter T. A. .Bowman and painting under the supervision of Taster Painter L. N # Tjmpkins. during the past year regular maintenance accomplished by the car- penter consisted of building reconditioning, including the Old Faith- ful ranger station, the small apartment hnuse at Old Faithful, a porch and cellar entrance at Y/est Yellowstone ranger station, converting one of the large houses at headquarters into a duplex, and other general maintenance work. A cew of four carpenters in addition to the master carpenter was employed during the early part of this year. , The master pointer's work consisted of painting and staining buildings; papering and placing signs, of which there are more than 2000. Building No» 24 was moved and remodeled. .This was necessary because of the fact that it occupied the sito of the proposed apart- ment house. Several buildings at headquarters received mino •• paoint jobs. The master painter worked alone until late in June when addi- tional help was necessary. i:ecrakical department ♦ This department is in charge of Master Mechanic Robert R. Robinson and includes six permanent mechanics, one per nent handyman mechanic, one blacksmith, two temporary handymen mechanics and one temporary blacksmith. Duties of the above are the maintenance, repair and overhaul of all motorized equipment in addition to several hundred axes, shovels saws, nicks, and bars that are reconditional each year. 20 New equipment purchased included eight one-half ton picups, on concrete mixer, one 50 hp caterpillar tractor and various small tool, A night shift consisting of two mechanics was started on June l This was a great help in taking care of car washing and greasing wit no delay in time when cars were unable to come into the garage durin the day time. MERG3NCY CONSERVATION WORK This year we were allowed six camps, which is an addition of t; more than for last year. The new camp3 are Camp ff 5, Old Faithful (Hi Perce Creek) and Camp #6, Snake River. The first two companies arri; Kay 4, two on May 15 and two on May 25. r rojects are progressing much more rapidly this year than in 1: due to the higher type of enrollees and the experienced supervisory personnel of "both the Army and the ^ark Service. . The morale of the enrolled men this year is excellent. They h "been subjept to some trying conditions and almost without exception worked without complaining. Because of the shortage of trucks for transportation, we have unable to work some of the first projects as they are listed in the i plans. This situation was met "by working all projects that were nea the main camps and consequently the work program as a whole has not held hack appreciably. Our rented equipment has thus far proven ver; •unsatisfactory. • This is "because of the exorbitant arice we have had pay and because of the poor condition of the trucks. To keep down e: penses trucks have been rented without dribers which has placed cons: able responsibility on the government and has resulted in some minor understandings. • Since we were able to keep the men at the camps pj employed without the services ofadditional trucks no more than three rented trucks have been used at one time and these will probably be ] leased early in July, By the end of June two side camps had been established; one on Southeast Arm of Yellowstone lake, to complete a warehouse and dock 1 had been started in 1935; the other near the Bechler River ranger stt for the purpose of construction a telephone line to the boundary Cre< patrol cabin. There is located at each camp an educational advisor and they i aiding considerably in organizing talks, programs, educational tripsj athletics. A regular schedule of weekly talks has been arranged by 1 ranger force and the park naturalist. 21 CIVIL WORKS PROGRAM The Civil Works program was commenced on December 15, 1933 and effectively continued until April 19, 1934, the closing date of all federal Civil 'Vorks projects. Personnel for this program was obtained from the Montana and Wyoming reemployment offices, an equal quota of men "being obtained from each state. Ten days after openin - of the program 225 men were at work on 20 different projects. This force was employed for the first 90 days after which time it was gradually reduced 11% a week. A good ty^e of labor was secured for the most part. Accidents were not serious and very few. Equipment furnished by the National Park and haulin the necessary materia It and supplies, though cost for maintenance was borne for the most part b;- £he program. A minimum of expenditures were made for equipment and su plies as requested by Administrator Hopkins, a small gas shovel was also furnished by for a short time to excavate top soil for the Mammoth landscaping projects and the Mammoth auto camp improvement. All pro jects were located within ten miles of Mammoth, the base camp. Housing facilities were obtained by remodeling the present stone barracks which, with the old bunk houses, accommodated the large force. Two settings at the mess were required during the first part oi the program until the storage room was converted into an auxiliary dining and mess hall. Two spike camps were established for a short period due to the inaccessibility of the projects to motor vehicles. One camp was established, at Lower Blacktail Deer Creek on the Yellowstone ^iver and one for trail construction ab ut four miles up the Yellowstone -"iiver from Gardiner; the latter camp relieving tae cong stion in Mammoth somewhat. Performance from both camp spike for the entire program was very satisfactory. The camp near Gardaier was a permanent tent camp which was established to accommodate 50 men or more with all necessary materials wad" supplies packed in. Weather condition at that season of the year were ideal for working a large camp of men. The program called for two water and sewer projects, six lands- caping, five road and trail, three building and f ur miscellaneous projects. Twenty worthwhile projects were carried on under this pro- gram that could not have been done from regular park funds. Two pro- jects that were origina ly scheduled were not started due to their inaccessibility and weather conditions. All other projects were practically completed. Four accountants and clerks were employed in cooperation with the regular park administrative force. All projects were supervised by the interested department heads with the active c operation of the engineering department under Mr. Lord. 22 A total of 12,506 man days, totaling an expenditure of ^70,402,/ were worked during the program. Accomplishments during the program were entirely satisfactory a! all projects were very much needed in view of the existing economy program for regular park work. PARK - OPERATORS The unexpected large increase in travel was reflected in increaj ed "business for the operators. By the end of June the percentage of increase of all operators was practically the same percentage of in- crease as -the travel. The poor season of 1933 caused the operators • refrain from making any material changes in their operations for fac ties although some minor changes were made "by the various operators • follows: Yellowstone Park u otel Company ; The maintenance wor of the ca: penters and paointers were carried on as usual. Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Company : Improvements consist o: installing 300 feet of new six-inch pipe line into the Mammoth plung< and other improv ments in the water system. Painting of cabin fl or; furniture and the inside of washrooms and toilet buildin;s was carri* on in the various n.usekeeoin - cabin units as well as some of the cabins in the various lodges. It was necessary to remove a many tree around the housekeeping areas that were "blown down "by heavy winds. *■ small building was constructed at Canyon Lodge for the housing of the chlorinating machine to be used at that location. C. A. Hamilton; The Old Faithful swimming pool, purchased "by 1 ^amilt;n last year from Mr. H. P. Brothers, was remodeled and was ready for use when the first park visitors arrived. The swimming poc has proven ver t . popular. It is enclosea and. affords comfortable batt both day and night. Pryor and Trischman; Minor improv, ments were made at the Canyor store, both exterior and interior, including the installation: of electric refrigeration. A smaJl dance floor was installed at the ^m oth coffee shop bu this will not be used unless approval is re- ceived from the Director for permitting dancing at this location. Haynes Picture Shops, Inc.t At Mammoth minor changes were made shop in the automobile campground, including removing partitions, re-arranging windows and doors, adding rear porch and door, com- pletely redeco rationing both inside and outside, and repainting the exterior of the residence building, reparing and repainting roof and remodeling inside thereof. At the headquarters building at 23 Karmoth, the main shop was repainted and some remodeling was done in- side. The inside of th , shops at Old Faithful auto camp, Fishing Bridge, Canyon and Thumb auto camps were remodeled. Two especially- designed photograph coping machines, one for Old Faithful and one for Tanmoth, were added to the equipment items. Yeilowst -ne Park Transportation Company; The usual painting and repair work on park "buses and trucks and other properties has "been c ^-tinued. Yellowstone Park Boat Company : Two small speed "boats and four Mullins steel rowhoats designed for outboard motors were purchased. The usual repairing and paointing of boats were carried on and a small addition made to the table on Stevenson Island. It is contemplated to place a roof over this table. Yellowstone Park F uel Company ; At old Faithful, Fishing Bridge and Canyon small tents or cahins were erected as sleeping quarters for the attendants, thus enabling many customers to he served after closing hours. New tarpaulin tops were installed on the wood piles at Fishing Bridge and Canyon. Bundles have "been enlarged to 16" in diameter. COOPERATING BUREAUS The Bureau of Public Roads, the US Public Health Service, Bur- eau of Entomoiogy, Bureau of Fisheries, Weather Bureau, Forest Ser- vice and War Department have all cooperated to the fullest extent with officials of the National Park Service in Yellowstone Park dur- ing the year just closed. Postoff ice: Business has increased over last year by almost exactly 1QC%. This includes both summer and winter business, the winter havin- been increased by the fact that there were more v/ork- men in the park than usual and that the working season began so much earlier in the soring Assistant Postmaster Clifford C. Marsh was retired for age on April 1, 1934. His vacancy has not been filled, since the re- ceipts of -fche office for the past year d.; no justify the services of an assistant post-aster under the present policy if the depart- ment. In th winter a considerable savin-- can be made by employment of temporary clerks by the hour inst ad of having a regular clerk or assistant postmaster. Postmaster C. a. Lindley was reappointed effective May 7, 1934. Bureau of Puulic Roads: The major highway work in the park under the supervision of the Bureau of Pubjic Roads during the past year has consisted chiefly of getting the approximately three-million 24 dollar Recovery program underway, all of which is now contracted except for a few small bridge contracts. The toal work underway at this time includes about 75 miles of grading, 25 miles of "base course surfacing, and several major structures. Ail of the work now under way should he completed during- 1935, and in following the procedure of concentrating - improvement on the grand loop route and the poorest sections of entrance roads, the end of the 1935 season should find most of the grand loop rraded, except the one section from Old Faithful to West Thumb and parts of it sur- faced and oiled, together with completed grading on "both the east and south entrance roads. The norteaa-t entrance from Cooke City to Tower Junction is als< under grading construction for about half its length on the Cooke Ci1 end, and plans for the completion of the grading are ready to coutrac as soon as additional funds are availahle. Emergency construction projects which were completed during th< past year, include the grading on one mile through the **olden Gate and the viaduct widening, also the -"base course surfacing of 20 miles from Canyon Junction to Tower Junction on the grand loop. One Recov< project, the surfacing of 12 miles from Mammoth to 0'f.3idian Cliff has just "been finished and another, the slide removal at Overhanging Clii is aLout to he completed. Weather Bureau: A period of 10 months is covered "by the presei report. The last previous weather summary for the superintendents annual report included 12 months ending at the close of August, 1933, We now surmmarize weather conditions from that time to the end of th< fiscal year, June 30, 1934. This highly interesting period has "been most conspicuously mar] "by a winter of extraordinary mildness and, except in the terminal moi hy a continuously mount in ~ deficiency in precipitation. September, th mgh without notahly cold weather, averaged nearl; two degrees per day "below normal. The first frost of the fall seasoi was a killing frost on Septemher 19. The first fall of a measurahle amount of snow occured during the night of September 24-25, 5.5 inchc being recorded. September's precipitation totaled 1.73 inches, or , l . inch more than normal. From October to May, inclusive, each month of the eight desplaj ed a very strong plus departure from normal temperature. Five of those months, October. December, January, February and May, esta"blial new high records for mean temperature , and daily mean temperatures fc the eight months were on the average, 7... degrees per day above norms The winter was much the warmest on record at this place. From Octote 1 to -kpril 30 daily mean temperatures averaged 34.8 degrees* This W8 5.1 degrees warmer than the second warmest similar period, which was that of 1901-1902, The latter period is rather closely approached "by several others. While mean temperatures were high during the time we are now considering, the records of extremes have called for no re- vision, A temperature as high as 80.0 degrees was registered on hut one day, May 28, when 82 was ohserved. Temperatures a fraction under 80,0, hut recorded to whole numhers as 80, occurred once in September and once in June, Winter's lowest temperature was -5 degrees on Feh- ruary 25, There were 178 days when minimum temperatures were 32,0 degrees or lower, and three with zero or lower, June interrupted this succession of warm months with a mean temperature of 53,8 degrees, which was nearly a degree a day he low May f s, and 2,2 degrees he low normal. The last freezing temperature and killing frost occurred on June ?, , The eight warm months were deficient in precipitation to the extent of 6,59 inches. The total precipitation for the entire 10 months was 11,11 inches, which was 4,57 inches less than normal. The total snowfall was 51,7 inches, a little more than half normal, A fall of 4,0 inches on Decemher 25 was the heaviest 24-hour snowfall of the season, while the greatest average depth of snow on the ground was 6,0 inches on Decemher 25 and 26, Septemher, Decemher and June exceeded the normal amount of snow, hut the June normal is less than an inch and the Septemher normal less than two inches. Precipitation amounting to 0,01 inch or more fe.il on 89 days. June, with its coolness was also rer-arkahle for its heavy precipitation. A total c of 3.48 inches was caught hy the rain gauge. This was nearly one-fifth of an inch greater than any preceding June total, and stands out sharply in comparison with May f s 0.42 inch, the lowest on record for that month. The greater 24-hour precipitation of the whole* 10 months was 1,6 inches^ occurring on June 6-7. ^11 these months, except Septemher, December and June, had higher percentages of sunshine than the corresponding months one year earlier Relative humidity was lower than a year earlier in October, Karch, April and May and higher in June and Novemher. In September it was lower in the early morning, and higher at noon and in th'c- evening. In Decemher it was lower in the morning and evening and higher at noon. In January and February it was higher in the morning and lower at noon and in the evening. Light fog was ohservrd on February 23 and June 7. There was no dense fog. Thunderstorms occurred" on 25 days. Southwest was the prevailing wind direction each month. The average velocity for the whole period was 8.8 miles per hour, December* average of 11,8 miles per hour was higher than that of any other month of any name in the records. The highest velocity for a f ive-minute period was 40 miles per hour (from southwest) on September 22 and June 18. A velocity as high as this does not appear previously in Septem- ber records. MISCELLANEOUS Vital Statistics: There was one death, due to ao: "births and 8 marriages. » Deaths ; Hon. J. B; Kendrick, United States Senator from Wji died in Sheridan, Wyoming on November 3, 1933. Senator Kendrick \t one of the most "beloved members of Congress and served his state i. Senate from 1917 until his death. He was a ver;y fine friend of t; Yellowstone and Urand Teton National Parks and*-aided materially ir the passage of legislation affecting these two parks. Judge George A, Horkan of Bozeman Montana, died in •Sheridan,' Wyoming on the same day that Senator Kendrick passfd away. Judge Horkan was formerly State Commander of the American legion for Montana and the father of Miriam Horkan, former park clerk. He was keenly interested in problems affecting the park. Mrs, Robert C. Reamer, wife of the architect who designed 0], Faithful Inn and Canyon Hotel, died in Seattle, Washington on Dece* ber 22, 1933. Mrs. Reamer is the niece of US Commissioner John W, Meldrum. General Hugh L. Scott, USA (Retired ) died at Walter Reed Hos pital, Washington DC on April 29, 1934 at the age of 80. General Scott engaged in the Nez Perce raid through Yellowstone Park in 1£ He made several trips to the Yellowstone following his retirement* General Scott was regarded as the "best white exponent of the sign language. William C, Corey, former president of the U. S. Steel Corpora died in New York City on May 11, 1934 at the age of 68. Mr. Corey donated $15,000 toward the construction of the Yellowstone lake Pi Hatchery. D. S. Spencer of Salt lake City, retired General Passenger Ag for the Union Pacific System, died in Salt lake on June 26, 1934. "Uncle Dan" as he was known to everyone, was one of the most enthu iastic park "boosters and was res pons ible for directing much travel the Yellowstone. Visitors; The list of distinguished visitors is necessarily small in this report "because of the fact that it covers the period fi»om October to June only and does not take in much of the regular park season. Among late visitors following the close of the 1933 season were Dr. Jan Hofman, Dean for Preservation of Historical Mo: raents of History Faculty at Comenius University at Brateslave, Czecho Slovakia, who arrived on October 11 and a party of Northern Pacific officials who arrived on November 14. This party included Charles Donnelly, President: J. M, Hannaford, Director and former 27 President; H. E. Stevens and James Woodworth, Vice Presidents; and T. F. Lowry, Assistant General Manager. Arrivals in April included Mr. and Mrs. Randolph Blinn, pro- minent newspaper and magazine writers of New York City and Dr. A. !'. Bosman, Dean of the College of Agriculture, University of Pert or ia, South Africa and Mrs. Boxman. Among the prominent visitors in May and June were Bernard Blum, ,Chief Engineer, Northern Pacific Railway; James Derrig, Assistant i Engineer; Governor Frank I". Cooney of Montana; General Prank McCoy, USA: F, "'/'. Isaac, Endehoss, Kenyn Colony, British East Africa, exp- lorer and naturalist; Nils G. Skield, Director, Swedish Technical Museum, Noorkoping Sweden; Henry B. Joy, former president of the Packard liotor ^ompany and Good Roads "booster; ids Charl Williams Field Secretary, National Educational Association and Vice President, Business and Professional Womens Clubs- Professor Franz Heske, German forester of international reputation, Tharendt, Germany; Com- mander Riley F. McConnell, USN; D. Dem. Dimanesco, Attache from Roumania; Mrs. Raymond Mo ley, wife of Professor Mo ley, former As- sistant Secretary of State; Judges G. T. McDer: :ott of Kansas and 0. L. Phillips of Denver, US Circuit C urt of Appeals; US Senator Clarence C. Dill of Washington; Mrs. M. a. Houck, prominent Washington society woman; F, L-artin Brown, Director Colorado Biological Survey; George C. LcManus, famous cartoonist; Watson Davis, Editor of Science Service; and US Congressman John H. Hoeppel of California. The two western regions of the Business and Professional Womens Clubs held their conveat^on at the Canyon Hotel on June 18 and 1 . The Pi Beta Phi Sorority held its convention at Old Faithful from June 24 to 30. iXer-oow^f JL &* ll/<*tu^ WUaaJUj.^ PJ~C*AJ*A^'^'J> ^(2?*k*Ljs Prepared at the Western Museum Laboratories of the Rational Par\ Service with assistance provided by the Wor\ Projects Administration — Official Project Np. 65-2-08-16, Actional Youth Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps.